The Composition of Interstitial Fluid in Angora Goats

Tuesday, 18th April 2017

Dr Mackie Hobson BSc (Agric) BVSc

South African Mohair Growers Association (SAMGA)

INTRODUCTION:

Swelling disease ‘Swelsiekte’, occurring in Angora goats, is the acute onset of severe subcutaneous oedema (fluid) of the lower body parts ventral neck, chest and abdomen, front and hind legs.

Samples of the ‘Swelsiekte’ (oedema) fluid have been collected by a number of research projects from Angora goats. Normal interstitial fluid has however has not been collected from Angora goats.  

Collecting interstitial fluid has always been difficult.

Senay, Mitchell, McClain, Mitchell & Connors (1981) described a subcutaneous, open-ended capsule, which enabled the collection of relatively large amounts of interstitial fluid. This capsule has been used successfully in rats (Coetzee, Hattingh & Mitchell, 1982), sheep (Hattingh, Mitchell & Ganhao, 1983) and Boer goats (Mitchell, Hattingh & Ganhao, 1983). Interstitial fluid was also collected by open ended plastic tubes from rabbits (Zurovsky, Mitchell, Hatting 1994).

Although the Total Protein level had been determined in a study in Boer goats (Mitchell, Hattingh & Ganhao, 1983) the normal levels of Albumin and Globulin in the interstitial fluid had not been recorded and no values for normal Angora goats had been measured.

METHOD:

Date: January - Febuary 2017

Site: Farm Ordonnantie, in the district of Graaff-Reinet, Eastern Cape, belonging to Richie Herold.

Sample: 4 randomly selected adult Angora goat ewes were used in the study.

Protocol:

  1. Sterile insulin syringe casings measuring 4cm in length and 0.5cm diameter were used as the collecting vessel.
  2. Local anaesthetic was injected subcutaneously and the site shaved and surgically prepared.
  3. 2 stab incisions on either side of the ventral midline enabled 4 casings to be placed in the subcutaneous tissue. The incisions were sutured and sprayed with a topical antibiotic and the goats were injected with a long acting penicillin antibiotic.
  4. A period of 6 weeks was allowed for healing and for all signs of inflammation to disappear for complete equilibration between capsular and interstitial fluids (Guyton, 1963).

Sample Collection:

A sample of clear capsular fluid was collected after 6 weeks by passing a 1.5” 23 Gauge hypodermic needle through the skin into the capsule (syringe casing). The fluid from each of the Angora goats was collected. (The samples from each tube were pooled in serum tubes and placed on ice- (1.5-2 ml in total from each goat).

Testing:

The fluid obtained from the capsules were sent to Idexx laboratories for analysis of Albumin, Globulin, Albumin:Globulin ratio, Total Protein, Protein electrophoresis, Osmolarity and Sodium.

 RESULTS:

 INTERSTITIAL FLUID

Angora 1

Angora 2

Angora 3

Angora 4

Mean (Average)(n=4)

TSP

38

37

49

32

39            (+/- 7.16)

Albumin

17

13

23

11

16            (+/- 5.29)

Globulin

 21

24

26

21

23            (+/- 2.45)

Alb:Glob ratio

0.8

0.54

0.88

0.52

0.69         (+/- 0.18)

Osmolarity

298

296

299

293

296.5      (+/- 2.29)

Sodium

138

144

144

143

142.25    (+/- 2.87)

Alpha 1 Globulin

1.8

2

2.7

 2.1

 2.15       (+/- 0.39)

Alpha 2 Globulin

5.6

3.4

5.4

 3.7

 4.53       (+/- 1.14)

Beta 1 Globulin

3.5

2.8

3.1

3.2

3.15       (+/- 0.29)

 

Gamma Globulin

6.8

9.5

13

 6.4

 8.93      (+/- 3.05)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DISCUSSION:

These results can be compared to previous interstitial fluid research findings in rats (Coetzee et al. 1982), rabbits ( Y.Zurovsky, G.Mitchell and J.Hattingh  1994) and boer goats (G. Mitchell, J.Hattingh and M.Ganhao. 1983).

 

 

Angora Goat

(data extracted from above table)

Boer goat

Rabbit

Rat

TSP

39

39.7

27

38

Alb

16

 

15

20.8

Glob

23

 

12

17.4

Alb:Glob

0.69

0.9

1.23

1.2

Osmolarity

296

264.7

 

 

Na

142.25

137.3

 

 

 

The results obtained by this study reflect the findings of interstitial fluid in Boer goats (G. Mitchell, J.Hattingh and M.Ganhao. 1983).  

 

The study was conducted by the SAMGA vet as part of further research into Swelling disease (‘Swelsiekte’) experienced by Angora goats to establish the Albumin and Globulin levels in the interstitial fluid of normal Angora goats.

 

AKNOWLEDGEMENTS:

  • Richie Herold for providing the Angora goats and assisting with the study.
  • South African Mohair Growers Association (SAMGA) for supporting the study

 

LITERATURE CITED:

COMPOSITION AND VISCOSITY OF INTERSTITIALFLUID OF RABBITS

  1. ZUROVSKY*, G. MITCHELL AND J. HATTINGH Department of Physiology and -aDepartment of General Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand,Johannesburg, South Africa.(MANUSCRIPT RECEIVED 19 JULY 1994, ACCEPTED 22 SEPTEMBER 1994)

Mitchell, G.; Hattingh, J.; Ganhao, M.F The composition of plasma and interstitial fluid of goats with swelling disease. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association (1983) 54 No.3, 181-183 (En). MRC/University Circulation Research.Unit, Department of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 2001 Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa.

GUYTON, A. C. (1963). A concept of negative interstitial fluid pressure based on pressures in implanted perforated capsules. Circulation Research 12, 399-414.

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