Clostridium Novyi Type A

Wednesday, 21st February 2018

‘Dikkop’ Swelled head

Clostridiun novyi  infection in Angora goats is very rare and usually seen in sheep and cattle. ONLY Type A (Swelled Head) has been diagnosed in South Africa.

Pathological strains of Clostridium novyi includeType A,B,D:

Type A: ‘Dikkop’ Swollen head

Type B: Black disease NOT REPORTED IN SOUTH AFRICA

D: Bacillary haemoglobinuria Type NOT REPORTED IN SOUTH AFRICA

 

Clostridium novyi Type A ( ‘Dikkop’ Swollen head )

It can effect young rams and causes a swelling of the head and neck. The infection usually occurs through wounds occurring during fighting and usually the summer months.

The infection usually starts around the face and then extends to the whole head and down the neck.

Death usually occurs within 48-72 hours.

On Post Mortem hydrothorax (fluid in the chest cavity) and hydropericardium (fluid in the heart sac) can be found.

Similar swelling of the head can be confused with ‘Geeldikkop’ (photosensitivity), snake bite, blue toungue or oedema through hypoproteinaemia caused by roundworms.

 

Clostridium novyi Type B (Black disease) NOT REPORTED IN SOUTH AFRICA

 

Black disease is usually seen in sheep and cattle causing necrotic hepatitis following migration of immature liver flukes.

 

Clostridium novyi Type D (Bacillary haemoglobinuria) NOT REPORTED IN SOUTH AFRICA

 

Usually a condition of cattle, rarely sheep and not effecting Angora goats. It is highly fatal and causes haemoglobinuria (discoloured urine) and jaundice. It occurs only where liver fluke occur which predisposes the liver to infection. The toxins produced by the bacteria are both haemotoxic and hepatotoxic

 

Reference:

Infectious Diseases of Livestock: Coetzer, Thomson, Tustin

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